U.S. Particle Accelerator School

Optical Systems for Synchrotron Light Beam Lines course

Sponsoring University:

University of California San Diego

Course:

Optical Systems for Synchrotron Light Beam Lines

Instructors:

Malcolm R. Howells and Stephen Lindaas, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


This class will take the form of lectures, assigned problems and problem-solving classes on the following topics. Synchrotron-radiation sources: fundamental physics, bending-magnets, undulators, radiation flux, brightness, spectral and angular distributions, power output, coherence properties, special devices for polarization control. Reflective optics: classical theory, reflection polarization, grazing incidence gratings, optical path function theory, aberrations, mirrors, mirror pairs. Mirror realizations: manufacture, polishing, coating, high-power mirror designs, cooling schemes, choice of materials, adjustable-radius mirror schemes, monolithic and flexural designs. Monochromator design principles: grating equation, resolution, phase-space acceptance, aberration analysis and suppression, spherical versus toroidal systems, prescription for design of a spherical grating monochromator (SGM). Monochromator design schemes: simple-rotation schemes - Seya-Namioka, Dietrich-Kunz, Miyake, Flipper, SX700, toroidal grating schemes, slit designs, real-world monochromator problems, the ALS SGM, the BESSY SGM, varied-line spacing designs. X-ray imaging systems: fundamentals of x-ray diffraction and contrast, x-ray microscopy by specular reflection, multilayer reflection, zone-plate diffraction, holography, scanned probe versus real-image systems, tomography and three-dimensional methods, radiation dose and damage. Future systems: some speculations about devices not in use today, whispering galleries, Arago's disc, optical materials both more and less exotic than today's choices, adaptive optics, x-ray Fourier-transform spectroscopy.