U.S. Particle Accelerator School

Optical Systems for Synchrotron Light Beam Lines course

Sponsoring University:

University of California San Diego


Optical Systems for Synchrotron Light Beam Lines


Malcolm R. Howells and Stephen Lindaas, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

This class will take the form of lectures, assigned problems and problem-solving classes on the following topics. Synchrotron-radiation sources: fundamental physics, bending-magnets, undulators, radiation flux, brightness, spectral and angular distributions, power output, coherence properties, special devices for polarization control. Reflective optics: classical theory, reflection polarization, grazing incidence gratings, optical path function theory, aberrations, mirrors, mirror pairs. Mirror realizations: manufacture, polishing, coating, high-power mirror designs, cooling schemes, choice of materials, adjustable-radius mirror schemes, monolithic and flexural designs. Monochromator design principles: grating equation, resolution, phase-space acceptance, aberration analysis and suppression, spherical versus toroidal systems, prescription for design of a spherical grating monochromator (SGM). Monochromator design schemes: simple-rotation schemes - Seya-Namioka, Dietrich-Kunz, Miyake, Flipper, SX700, toroidal grating schemes, slit designs, real-world monochromator problems, the ALS SGM, the BESSY SGM, varied-line spacing designs. X-ray imaging systems: fundamentals of x-ray diffraction and contrast, x-ray microscopy by specular reflection, multilayer reflection, zone-plate diffraction, holography, scanned probe versus real-image systems, tomography and three-dimensional methods, radiation dose and damage. Future systems: some speculations about devices not in use today, whispering galleries, Arago's disc, optical materials both more and less exotic than today's choices, adaptive optics, x-ray Fourier-transform spectroscopy.