U.S. Particle Accelerator School

Physics and Technology of Cyclotrons and FFAGs course

Sponsoring University:

UC Santa Cruz


Physics and Technology of Cyclotrons and FFAGs


Michael Craddock, University of British Columbia and TRIUMF

Purpose and Audience
The purpose of this course is to provide an introduction to the physics and technology of cyclotrons and fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. It is appropriate for students, scientists or engineers who wish to familiarize themselves with fixed-field accelerators.

Courses in special relativity, classical mechanics and electrodynamics at a junior undergraduate level or higher.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that he or she meets the course prerequisites or has equivalent experience.

The students should gain a basic knowledge of the physics and technology of fixed-field accelerators. By the end of the course students should have a good grasp of the physics principles and be able to estimate suitable design parameters for cyclotrons and FFAGs of low and high energies for various particles and applications.

Instructional Method
On each of the first four days there will be two morning lectures, one afternoon lecture and a tutorial exercise session.  Homework will be assigned every day to be turned in the following day, when the solutions will be discussed. There will be an open-book final exam at the conclusion of the course.

Course Content
The accelerator types covered will include cyclotrons (classical, synchro-, sector-focused, ring, superconducting, and separated-orbit), microtrons (compact and racetrack), and FFAGs (scaling, linear non-scaling, and non-linear non-scaling). General topics will include fixed-field magnets, transverse focusing mechanisms, single particle motion in periodic lattices, transverse beam stability, space charge, longitudinal motion, phase stability, and radiofrequency, injection and extraction systems.

Reading Requirements
Recommended pre-course reading:
1. J.J. Livingood, 'Cyclic Particle Accelerators' (van Nostrand, 1961) - particularly Chapters 8, 11 and 13. Chapters 2-7 will also be helpful to those who have not previously studied accelerators.
2. J.R. Richardson, 'Sector Focused Cyclotrons', Progress in Nuclear Techniques & Instrumentation, v.1, 1-101 (1965).
3. C.H. Prior (ed.), ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter, v.43, 19-133 (2007)
http://www-bd.fnal.gov/icfabd/Newsletter43.pdf "

(to be provided by the USPAS) “Cyclotrons and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient  Accelerators” by M.K. Craddock and K.R. Symon, Rev. Acc. Sci. Tech. 1, 65-97 (2008). Lecture notes will be handed out during the course.

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on performance approximately as follows: final exam (30% of final grade), homework assignments (70% of final grade).

IU/USPAS course number P671