U.S. Particle Accelerator School
U.S. Particle Accelerator School
Education in Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology

Beam Loss and Machine Protection

Sponsoring University:


Course Name:

Beam Loss and Machine Protection


Rudiger Schmidt, TU Darmstadt; Jorg Wenninger, CERN; Doug Curry, Oak Ridge National Lab

Purpose and Audience
This course is intended for physicists and engineers who are or may be engaged in the design and /or operation of accelerators with high-power beams, small emittances, or accelerator systems with large stored energy. Protection can be relevant for linear and circular accelerators, for colliders, spallation sources, synchrotron light sources, FELs etc. At the completion of the course, participants should be able to understand the physical phenomena that can damage machine subsystems or interrupt operations, and to analyze an accelerator facility to produce a register of technical risks and the corresponding risk mitigation and management strategies.

Upper division undergraduate courses in electromagnetism (at the level of "Introduction to Electrodynamics" by David J. Griffiths) and the USPAS course "Fundamentals of Accelerators" or "Accelerator Physics".

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.

Many particle accelerators operate with high beam power or large energy density due to very small emittance. Large amounts of energy can be stored in particle beams as well as in magnet systems. In the future, stored energy in high-intensity accelerators is likely to increase and beams are becoming smaller. Protecting the accelerator equipment from the consequences of uncontrolled release of the energy is essential. This course will explore the methods and technologies to manage the technical risks associated with accelerators with high-power beams or large stored energy.

Instructional Method
The course consists of lectures in both morning (3 hrs. per class day), and afternoon sessions (2 hrs. per class day). In addition, the afternoon sessions will include case studies of protecting accelerator systems with large stored energy and very high-power beams.

Course Content
During this course the methods and technologies to identify, mitigate, monitor and manage the technical risks associated with the operation of accelerators with high-power beams or subsystems with large stored energy will be presented. Themes for the lectures 1) What can go wrong? 2) What are the consequences? 3) Mitigation, 4) Controls and operation, and 5) Safety engineering. Specific topics will cover beam dynamics and beam losses, beam material interaction, heating, activation, damage mechanisms from losses of primary and secondary beam and their calculation, beam transfer and fast kickers, detection of failures, beam cleaning and collimation, protection of superconducting magnets and other hardware, case studies in machine protection, and machine protection and operation.

Reading Requirements
(to be provided by the USPAS) "Proceedings of the 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection" Vol 2, CERN Yellow Paper (2016), edited by Rudiger Schmidt.

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on homework (30%) and case study assignments (70%).

TBD course number:
Indiana University course number:
Physics 671, Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790, Accelerator Physics