U.S. Particle Accelerator School

Cyclotrons and Their Design course

Sponsoring University:

Duke University


Cyclotrons and Their Design
Duke PHY745 Section 4, "Special Topics in Accelerator Physics"


Timothy Koeth, University of Maryland and Amber Johnson, Fermilab

Purpose and Audience
Cyclotrons are versatile accelerators whose use, because of an unsurpassed economic footprint, continues to expand in basic research, industry, medicine, and education. This course provides students with an introduction to the physics and technology of cyclotrons and their design. The level is suitable for graduate students and senior undergraduate students in physics and engineering as well as those associated with cyclotron operations.

General knowledge in college physics including electricity and magnetism.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that he or she meets the course prerequisites or has equivalent experience.

During the lectures, students will learn the theory and tools necessary to design a cyclotron. On completion of the course students are expected to understand the physical principles of modern cyclotrons, describe the technology of all major cyclotron subsystems, and be able to guide a cyclotron design.

Instructional Method
This course will be comprised of morning lectures and afternoon computer-based design labs. The lectures will cover cyclotron fundamentals. We will incorporate real life examples taken from operational cyclotrons. The afternoon labs will begin with a tutorial of the simulation tools to be used in the cyclotron design lab. Assigned problem sets should be completed outside of scheduled class sessions. As a final project, students will design their own cyclotron. Two instructors will be available at all times.

Course Content
This course will cover theoretical and practical aspects of cyclotrons and their design. This includes magnetic resonance [cyclotron] acceleration, ion sources, weak and Azimuthally Varying Field (AVF) beam focusing, and beam extraction methods. Conventional and superconducting magnets and the measurements necessary for their design verification will be discussed. We will also include relevant technology of cyclotron radio frequency and vacuum systems. Limitations will also be discussed, such as resonances and space charge. Students will receive guidance and hands on experience with simulation tools in the design of their own cyclotron.

Reading Requirements
“Principles of Cyclic Particle Accelerators", by J.J. Livingood. Additional material will be provided by the instructors.

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on performance: final project (approximately 40% of grade) homework assignments (approximately 40% of grade), design lab sessions (approximately 20% of grade).

IU/USPAS course: Physics 671