U.S. Particle Accelerator School

High Power Targets for Accelerators


Northern Illinois University and UT-Battelle

Course Name:

High Power Targets for Accelerators


Bernie Riemer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Patrick Hurh, Fermilab

Purpose and Audience
This course is an introduction to the design, engineering and operation of targets for high power accelerator applications for the production of secondary particles. High power target system design must broadly consider heat removal, structural integrity, pulsed beam effects, material behavior under radiation, robust fabrication, shielding, facility safety, and waste disposal. The course is directed to graduate students or young professionals in engineering or physics with career interest in accelerator targets for secondary particle production.

Courses in heat transfer, mechanics of materials, fluid dynamics, material science, nuclear engineering, at undergraduate or entrance graduate level. Familiarity with finite element / finite difference methods, fatigue evaluation and fracture mechanics is recommended.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that he or she meets the course prerequisites or has equivalent experience.

.On completion of this course, the students are expected to understand the requirements for successful high-power target design and operation and approaches to evaluating design concepts to meeting those requirements. Students will be introduced to methods for evaluating particle production, energy deposition, target temperature, stress, fatigue, material radiation damage, and activation.  

Instructional Method
The course will utilize presentations, demonstrations and exercises. Homework projects will be assigned daily, and the results will be graded and discussed in the following sessions. 

Course Content
The course will begin with an overview of accelerator target applications, concepts of deposited target power, power density, and pulse energy density. Target design concepts will be reviewed including: fixed, segmented, rotating, flowing, etc. A review of ionizing radiation will be conducted. Tools for simulating particle production, radiation dose and activation analysis will be introduced. Methods for heat removal and estimating target operating temperature and stress will be covered. Target material selection, material radiation damage concepts and important material thermo-mechanical properties will be reviewed. The impact of facility safety with on target design choices will be discussed, as will operational considerations such as remote handling and waste disposal. Due to the sophisticated simulation tools typically used in target design and limited course time, hands-on exercises will be carried out for simplified concepts using generally available codes. Demonstrations of more detailed simulations of realistic designs will be presented.

Reading Requirements
Students will receive instructor-provided handouts. 

Optional Reading Recommendations (in order of value)
- "Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer" by Theodore L. Bergman, Adrienne S. Lavine, et al, 7th edition, Wiley Publishers (2011).

- "Advanced Mechanics of Materials" by Arthur P. Boresi and Richard J. Schmidt, 6th edition, Wiley Publishers (2002).

- "Fluid Mechanics" by Frank M. White, 8th edition, McGraw-Hill Education (2015).

- "Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science: Metals and Alloys" by Gary S. Was, 2nd edition, Springer (2016).

- "Stress Waves in Solids" (Dover Books on Physics) by H. Kolsky, 2nd edtion, Dover Publications (2012).

- "Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering" by J. Kenneth Shultis and Richard E. Faw, 3rd edition, CRC Press (2016).

- "Metal Fatigue in Engineering" by Ali Fatemi, 2nd edition, Wiley-Interscience (2000).

- "Finite Element Procedures" by Klaus-Jurgen Bathe, 2nd edition, Klaus-Jurgen Bathe Publishers (2014).

- "Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer" by Robert Siegel and John R. Howell, McGraw-Hill Inc (1972).

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated on homework assignments (70%) and a final project (30%).  

Northern Illinois University course number:
Indiana University course number: Physics 671, Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790, "Accelerator Physics"