U.S. Particle Accelerator School
U.S. Particle Accelerator School
Education in Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology

Ion Sources and Low-Energy Ion Beams course

Sponsoring University:

University of Tennessee, Knoxville


Ion Sources and Low-Energy Ion Beams


Martin P. Stockli and Baoxi Han, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Purpose and Audience
This course is intended as an introduction to the field of ion sources and low-energy ion beams and is suitable for senior undergraduate students or students from other fields with a particular interest in the physics and technology of ion sources and low-energy ion beams. The course is also appropriate for engineers and technicians working in accelerator-related fields who wish to broaden their level of understanding.

Students should first take the USPAS graduate course in Accelerator Physics or have recently passed courses in classical physics and electromagnetism. Exceptions can be granted by the instructor at stockli@ornl.gov.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.

This course will focus on the principles of ion generation, ion beam formation, and the transport of low-energy ions, which are highly interdisciplinary subjects. Accordingly, it will include introductions to plasma physics, vacuum, charged particle optics, vacuum, beam diagnostics including beam emittance, high voltage and electrical safety. In the computer laboratory we will give an introduction to modeling and emittance analysis. 

Instructional Method
This course is based on a series of lectures, with about two afternoons spent in the computer lab. Sets of problems covering certain topics will be assigned and have to be completed outside of scheduled class time. Problem sets will be graded, and feedback will be provided by the instructors in a timely fashion.

Course Content
The lectures will begin with low-pressure electrical discharges and then move to ion sources for positive ions, negative ions, and highly-charged ions. This will be followed by lectures on ion beam formation, ion beam transport, and ion beam diagnostics. Lectures on emittance measurements and analysis will be followed by practical emittance analysis in the computer lab. An introduction to computer modeling will be followed by an exercise in the computer lab. The basic concepts of vacuum and high voltage will be introduced, and amended by lectures on safety regarding ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and electrical hazards. The course will close out with a lecture on ion beam chopping.

Reading Requirements
(to be provided by the USPAS) "Ion Sources” by Huashun Zhang, Science Press-Springer, 1999. Additional handouts with supplementary material will be provided by the course instructors.

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on performance: homework assignments (80 % of final grade) computer lab sessions (20 % of final grade)

IU/USPAS course number P671