U.S. Particle Accelerator School
U.S. Particle Accelerator School
Education in Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology

RF Superconductivity for Particle Accelerators

Sponsoring University:

Northern Illinois University

Course Name:

RF Superconductivity for Particle Accelerators


Sergey Belomestnykh and Alexander Romanenko, Fermilab

Purpose and Audience
The two-week course will cover the science fundamentals and practical manufacturing, processing, and operational aspects of the superconducting RF cavities – the state-of-the-art technology used for both pulsed and CW particle acceleration. The course is intended to give a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, engineers, and physicists interested in entering this field, as well as to deepen understanding of the technology for those already exposed to some aspects of SRF.

Basic knowledge of electromagnetism, microwave techniques, and solid state/condensed matter physics at the senior undergraduate level.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.

Upon completion of the course students are expected to have a clear understanding of the advantages, basic underlying physics, open questions, and domain of applicability of SRF technology, as well as state-of-the-art infrastructure and techniques required for successful implementation of SRF-based accelerators.

Instructional Method
The course will include lectures, practical laboratory demonstrations, and instructional lab exercises performed at the extensive Fermilab SRF infrastructure. Homework problems will be assigned during the course, and a final exam at the end of the course will be given.

Course Content
The course lectures will start from an introduction to the principles of RF acceleration and a general mathematical description of microwave cavities. The phenomenon of superconductivity, and the advantages it brings for RF cavities will then be discussed in detail. In-depth coverage of principles of RF superconductivity and various types of SRF cavities used for different applications will follow. Extrinsic phenomena adversely affecting the performance will be discussed including multipacting, field emission, hydrogen Q-disease. Modern cavity manufacturing, processing, and basic measurement techniques will then be reviewed. Key steps and challenges in engineering and operating of complete SRF cryomodules (cryostats, cavities, input couplers, higher order mode couplers and loads, frequency tuners) will be fully discussed. Beam-cavity interaction issues in operation will also be reviewed. Overview of the recent scientific progress and future outlook with standing challenges and promising research directions will conclude the course. Several practical exercises and demonstration for key topics will be integrated in the course. The practical exercises will utilize world-class SRF facilities at Fermilab.

Reading Requirements
The following textbook provided by USPAS will be extensively used during the course:
RF Superconductivity for Accelerators by H. Padamsee, J. Knobloch, and T. Hays, John Wiley and Sons, 2nd edition (2008)

It is recommended that students refresh their knowledge of the fundamentals of electrodynamics at the level of one of the following textbooks:
- Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (Chapters 1 through 11) by S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. Van Duzer, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition (1994)
- Classical Electrodynamics (Chapters 1 through 8) by J. D. Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition (1999)
Foundations for Microwave Engineering (Chapters 1 through 8) by R. E. Collins, John Wiley & Sons (2001)

and their knowledge of condensed matter physics/superconductivity at the level of:
- Solid State Physics (Chapter 34-Superconductivity) by N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Cengage Learning (1976)
- Introduction to superconductivity: second edition (Chapters 1-2) by M. Tinkham, Dover Books on Physics (2004)

Additional suggested reference books:
- Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering edited by A. W. Chao, K. H. Mess, M. Tigner and F. Zimmermann, World Scientific, 2nd Edition (2013)
- RF Superconductivity: Science, Technology, and Applications by H. Padamsee, Wiley-VCH (2009).

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on the following performances: final exam (40%), homework assignments and class participation (35%) and lab exercises (25%).

Northern Illinois University course number:
PHYS 790D - Special Topics in Physics - Beam Physics
Indiana University course number: Physics 571 "Special Topics in Physics of Beams"
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963 
MIT course number: 8.790 "Accelerator Physics"