U.S. Particle Accelerator School

Beam-Based Diagnostics


Northern Illinois University and UT-Battelle


Beam-Based Diagnostics


Christoph Steier, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab; James Safranek and Xiaobiao Huang, SLAC National Accelerator Lab

Purpose and Audience
The purpose of this course is to give an overview of beam-based diagnostics (centered mostly on circular accelerators) including practical computer examples. The course is intended for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, who want to get a start into this modern and advanced field, as well as for accelerator operators that want to get a better understanding of advanced measurement methods.

Working familiarity with basic accelerator physics, electrodynamics and classical mechanics as provided by the USPAS course "Fundamentals of Accelerator Physics and Technology with Simulations and Measurements Lab".

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that he or she meets the course prerequisites or has equivalent experience.

Charged particle storage rings are used for a variety of science and technology applications -- for example as synchrotron radiation light sources for biology, chemistry, and materials science, as colliders for high-energy physics or as damping rings to reduce the beam emittance for linear colliders. The dynamic aperture limits the performance in many of these current accelerators. To optimize the performance, a good knowledge of the machine model is required. To achieve the required accuracy of the machine model, beam based measurements have proven to be essential. This course will start with the fundamental beam dynamics concepts and beam measurement methods and will describe more and more complex examples of beam-based diagnostics applications used to understand and optimize machine performance.

Instructional Method
The course will consist of approximately 15 lectures, most of them during morning sessions. In addition there will be computer classes every afternoon demonstrating many concepts presented in the lectures as well as introducing software tools to analyze measurements in the area of beam-based diagnostics (like orbit response matrices, phase advance data, etc.). The afternoons will also include some of the lectures plus some less formal discussion sessions. In addition there will be 4 homework sets to be solved in the evenings.

Course Content
We will present beam-based methods for characterizing and controlling the linear and nonlinear optics of a storage ring. We will cover tune, chromaticity, and dispersion measurement; beam-based alignment; orbit response matrix analysis; analysis of turn-by-turn orbit data; beam size measurement; methods of coupling correction; measurement of dynamic aperture; measurement of energy aperture; characterization of resonances; tune shift with amplitude; model independent analysis; and impedance characterization using turn-by-turn and closed orbit measurements.

Reading Requirements
(to be provided by USPAS) "Particle Accelerator Physics,” Springer Publishers (fourth edition, 2015) by Helmut Wiedemann.

No previous reading is required, but basic familiarity with transverse beam dynamics as found in “Basic Course on Accelerator Optics” by J. Rossbach and P. Schmueser (CERN publication) and “An Introduction to the Physics of High Energy Accelerators”, Wiley & Sons Publishers (1993) by Donald A. Edwards and Michael J. Syphers or "Accelerator Physics" by S.Y. Lee. World Scientific, 1999 is advantageous.

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on performance as follows: final exam (30% of final grade), homework assignments (40% of final grade), class participation (20% of final grade), computer class (10% of final grade)

Northern Illinois University course number: PHYSICS 790D - Special Topics in Physics - Beam Physics
Indiana University course number: Physics 671, Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790, "Accelerator Physics"