U.S. Particle Accelerator School

Design and Engineering of Modern Beam Diagnostics

Northern Illinois University and UT-Battelle

Course Name:
Design and Engineering of Modern Beam Diagnostics

Manfred Wendt, CERN; Silvia Zorzetti and Randy Thurman-Keup, Fermilab

Purpose and Audience
This graduate-level course gives an introduction to the principles and the engineering of beam instruments and diagnostics systems commonly used in charged particle accelerators. The lectures are accompanied by practical examples and exercises on the computer.  The course is intended for graduate students (applied physics, electrical engineering), postdoctoral fellows and other early-career scientists, and accelerator engineers who wish to enter this broad, exciting field of beam instrumentation and diagnostics. The course is mostly engineering-oriented, but also reviews the underlying physics of diagnostic systems covered. A complementary first-week course on "Beam Based Diagnostics" covers the use of these devices in measuring and manipulating many physics parameters of the beam.   

A senior undergraduate level understanding of electromagnetic fields and waves, fundamentals of electronic circuits, and some familiarity with basic accelerator physics at the level of the USPAS course “Fundamentals of Accelerator Physics and Technology.”

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that he or she meets the course prerequisites or has equivalent experience.

Modern beam instrumentation and diagnostics cover a wide range of engineering and applied physics principles, and are used in every linear or circular particle accelerator. Improving performance, accuracy and resolution of the beam instruments which analyze and characterize the beam is the best, direct way to improve the accelerator performance, its reliability, and the beam quality. This course discusses a variety of beam monitors, from well-known electromagnetic beam monitors such as beam current and beam position monitors, intercepting and non-intercepting profile monitors including those based on optical radiation principles (e.g. scintillation, synchrotron and transition radiation, etc.) to some state-of-the-art or less known beam instruments, e.g. the cryogenic-current-comparator, cavity beam position monitors, Schottky signal observation, etc. While not all types of beam instruments can be covered, additional primers in relevant engineering disciplines, e.g. RF engineering and analog electronics, digital signal processing, optical design, will be overviewed Students successfully completing this course will be prepared to complete conceptual engineering designs of a broad range of common beam diagnostic systems.

Instructional Method
The course will consist of approximately 15 lectures, most of them during morning sessions. In addition, there will be computer exercises every afternoon demonstrating many concepts presented in the lectures, as well as introducing software tools to analyze and optimize electromagnetic beam monitors, RF and analog signal conditioning electronics, digital signal processing systems, and optical designs. The afternoons may also include some of the lectures, plus some less formal discussion sessions and tutorials. Regular homework assignments will be assigned that will be completed outside of class.

Course Content
The course will start with a brief refresher on math and electromagnetics, followed by definitions of beam and machine parameters to be measured. A variety of beam monitors and their principles will be discussed, image current principle, wall current monitors and toroids, DC-current transformers, broad-band beam position monitors (button, strip-line, split-plate), resonant cavity BPMs, Schottky signals and their monitoring, synchrotron light monitors, monitors based on transition radiation or scintillation, ionization profile monitors, etc. The lectures will also include notes on the extraction of wanted beam parameters, analog signal conditioning, digital signal processing, calibration methods (signal and beam-based), etc. A short discussion on wake fields and impedances and a primer on RF engineering will also be included.   

Recommended Reading

"Beam Position Monitoring" by Robert Shafer https://www.bnl.gov/edm/review/files/references/rshafer_aip_249_601_1992.pdf

"Tutorial on Beam Current Monitoring" by Robert C. Webber, FERMILAB-Conf-00-119, June 2000

"Radiation Sources and their Application for Beam Profile Diagnostics", by Gero Kube

Additional material will be provided by the instructors.

Credit Requirements
Student grades will be evaluated based on performance as follows: final exam (50%), homework assignments (20%), class participation (20%), computer exercises (10%).

Northern Illinois University course number: PHYSICS 790D - Special Topics in Physics - Beam Physics
Indiana University course number: Physics 671, Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790, "Accelerator Physics"