U.S. Particle Accelerator School
U.S. Particle Accelerator School
Education in Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology

Injection and Extraction of Beams

Sponsoring University:


Course Name:

Injection and Extraction of Beams


Uli Wienands, Argonne National Lab and Edu Marin-Lacoma, CELLS

Purpose and Audience
This course provides an introduction to the physics and design of ring injection and extraction systems. Proton, ion, and electron systems will be covered. The course is appropriate for anyone with some background in accelerator physics and technology and with an interest in injection and extraction of beams, including for operational staff.

Students should have basic knowledge of accelerator physics. Matrix optics, closed orbit and dispersion should be familiar to the student. The student should have some idea about transverse and longitudinal beam motion in a circular accelerator or storage ring. The introductory or advanced USPAS general accelerator physics courses will in general provide the necessary foundation.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.

The students will learn the fundamental concepts for designing ring injection and extraction systems as they apply to hadron and electron machines. We will also treat the optics matching issues encountered. Upon completion of this course, students will be able to apply this knowledge to real-life ring design and operation.

Instructional Method
The course includes four series of lectures in the morning. The afternoon will be spent solving real-life problems, in computer lab as provided and applicable and/or in lectures. Homework problem sets will be assigned every day and students are expected to work on them after scheduled class sessions and return them by the next day, when the homework solutions will be reviewed. There will be an open-book exam during the last day. The instructors will be available at all times.

Course Content
The principles of injection and extraction will be introduced first and the student will gain an appreciation for the wide variety of details concerning injection and extraction. Examples drawn from existing rings will be presented along with the particular strengths of those designs. We will treat matching problems both for the ring lattices and for the transfer lines. The course will conclude with a discussion of advanced schemes like injection using pulsed higher-order magnets and extraction using bent crystals, as well as automated tuning of beam injection e.g. during machine commissioning.  In-depth coverage of specific topics will include:
* stripping injection of H– ion beams
* transverse and longitudinal painting
* extraction of hadron beams including resonant slow extraction
* injection of electron and positron beams in the presence of radiation damping
* issues of bunch-current equalization
* emittance preservation
* matching procedures
* compensation of pulsed-magnet ringing
* practical tuning strategies for injection & extraction systems.

Reading Requirements
(to be provided by the USPAS) "Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering" (third edition) by A. Chao et al., World Scientific (2017). Students are also encouraged to bring along their favorite accelerator physics and technology books.

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on performance as follows: final exam (30% of final grade), course participation (20% of final grade) and homework assignments (50% of final grade).

TBD course number:
Indiana University course number:
Physics 671 Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790 "Accelerator Physics"