U.S. Particle Accelerator School
U.S. Particle Accelerator School
Education in Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology

Hadron Beam Cooling in Particle Accelerators


Northern Illinois University

Course Name:

Hadron Beam Cooling in Particle Accelerators


Vladimir Litvinenko, Irina Petrushina, Stony Brook University; Yichao Jing and Jun Ma, Brookhaven National Laboratory

Purpose and Audience
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to methods of hadron beam cooling to reduce the phase-space area of beams in charged particle circular accelerators. Beam cooling enables higher beam brightness and enhanced performance in many accelerator applications. The course is designed for graduate students pursuing accelerator physics as a career, or scientists or engineers having an interest in this topic in accelerator science.

Classical mechanics, electrodynamics, and applied mathematical methods for scientists and engineers, all at entrance graduate level, are required.  Familiarity with accelerator science at the level of the USPAS course Accelerator Physics (graduate level) or Fundamentals of Accelerator Physics and Technology with Simulations and Measurements Lab (undergraduate level), or equivalent experience, are also required. 

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.

Upon completion of this course, the students are expected to understand the basic principles that underline the physics of proton and ion beam cooling in particle accelerators. They will understand measures of phase-space density and how increases in the phase-space density are considered “beam cooling”. Several practical examples will be presented: stochastic and optical stochastic cooling, electron cooling and coherent electron cooling. Applying knowledge from these examples, students will develop an insight into the mechanisms of both beam diffusion and beam cooling. Insight will be gained on future applications to modern accelerators and colliders, including potential cooling mechanisms to improve performance in the planned Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) project in high energy nuclear physics.

Instructional Method
This course includes a series of lectures and exercise sessions. Homework problems will be assigned daily which will be graded and solutions will be reviewed in the exercise sessions the following day. There will be an in-class, open-note final exam at the conclusion of the course.

Course Content
The course will start with a description of Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian processes in particle accelerators. Examples of beam invariants, cooling decrements  and diffusion processes will be discussed. Four cooling methods and their applications will be presented in detail.

Reading Requirements
To be provided by the USPAS: "Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators" by Andrzej Wolski (Imperial College Press 2014).

Suggested Reading
- Accelerator Physics - fourth edition by S.Y. Lee (World Scientific 2019)
- Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering - second edition by Alexander W. Chao and Maury Tigner (World Scientific 2013)
- Fundamentals of Accelerator Physics, http://case.physics.stonybrook.edu/index.php/PHY554_Fall_2021

- Fall: PHY 564: Advanced Accelerator Physics, http://case.physics.stonybrook.edu/index.php/PHY564_fall_2022

Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated based on the following performances: Final exam (50%), Homework assignments and class participation (50%).

USPAS Computer Requirements
There will be no Computer Lab and all participants are required to bring their own portable computer to access online course notes and computer resources.  This can be a laptop or a tablet with a sufficiently large screen and keyboard. Windows, Mac, and Linux-based systems that are wifi capable and have a standard web browser and mouse are all acceptable.  You should have privileges for software installs. If you are unable to bring a computer, please contact uspas@fnal.gov ASAP to request a laptop loan.  Very limited IT support and spare loaner laptops will be available during the session.

Northern Illinois University course number: PHYS 790D Special Topics in Physics - Beam Physics
Indiana University course number: Physics 671, Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790, Accelerator Physics