U.S. Particle Accelerator School
U.S. Particle Accelerator School
Education in Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology

Physics and Engineering of Rings and Undulators for FELs and Light Sources


Michigan State University

Course Name:

Physics and Engineering of Rings and Undulators for FELs and Light Sources


Timur Shaftan and Oleg Chubar, Brookhaven National Lab
TA: Dolan Falconer, Reveam and Georgia Tech

Purpose and Audience
This course will instruct students on the physics and technology of undulators – sources of radiation in contemporary accelerator-based light sources, on basics of synchrotron radiation and related accelerator physics. It is a graduate-level course suitable for students, scientists and engineers with interest in synchrotron radiation sources. The course is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate-level students.

The purpose is to introduce the basic concepts, explain and illustrate the principles of construction and operations of synchrotron light sources and deliver practical recipes for light source engineering.  

Students should be competent at a senior-undergraduate level with a combination of classical mechanics, electrodynamics and parts from courses on mechanical and electrical engineering.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.

On completion of this course, the students are expected to understand the basic physical principles behind an undulator, interaction of ultra-relativistic particles with an undulator field, properties of undulator radiation, and applications of undulators in storage ring and FEL-based light sources. Also, the students are expected to perform computer simulations associated with preliminary design studies of undulators.

Instructional Method
This course includes a series of lectures in the morning, followed by problem solving sessions in the afternoon. Problem sets, to be completed outside of scheduled class time, will be assigned in the lecture sessions.

Course Content
The lectures will be focused on Insertion Devices, beam dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators, synchrotron and undulator radiation. The course will begin with a review of basic principles of relativistic mechanics, basics in radiation physics of ultra-relativistic particles moving in electromagnetic fields, and accelerator physics concepts applicable to storage ring-based light sources and FELs. It will follow with the introduction of the undulator concept and analysis of undulator radiation of a single particle. The single-particle formulation is extended in a more comprehensive analysis of radiation of a multi-particle beam with non-zero emittance.

Different magnetic designs of undulators will be introduced: permanent magnet-based designs and electromagnet-based designs, including superconducting electromagnets. Specific requirements for the quality of undulator magnetic field will be introduced. It will follow with the description of special measurements tools used for the verification of field quality.

Engineering solutions for different types of undulators will be introduced and a comparative analysis of their advantages and disadvantages will be presented. This part of the course will also include description and analysis of essential mechanical components associated with undulators, such as drive mechanisms and vacuum chambers. It will also touch upon problems and solutions associated with the construction of undulators.

Finally, physics and engineering of the integration of undulators in storage ring light sources and FEL amplifiers will conclude the course.

Reading Requirements
CAS and USPAS websites: https://cas.web.cern.ch/ and https://uspas.fnal.gov/

Suggested reading:
“Undulators, Wigglers and Their Applications" edited by Hideo Onuki and Pascal Elleaume, Published October 17, 2002 by CRC Press, https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203218235

Credit Requirements
Student evaluation will be based on the homework assignments (50% of final grade) and the in-class final exam (50% of final grade).

USPAS Computer Requirements
There will be no Computer Lab and all participants are required to bring their own portable computer to access online course notes and computer resources.  This can be a laptop or a tablet with a sufficiently large screen and keyboard. Windows, Mac, and Linux-based systems that are wifi capable and have a standard web browser and mouse are all acceptable.  You should have privileges for software installs. If you are unable to bring a computer, please contact uspas@fnal.gov ASAP to request a laptop loan.  Very limited IT support and spare loaner laptops will be available during the session.

Michigan State University course number:  PHY 905 Section 703, Special Problems
Indiana University course number: Physics 671, Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
MIT course number: 8.790, Accelerator Physics