Northern Illinois University
Microwave Measurements and Beam Instrumentation Laboratory at Jefferson Lab
This class is limited to 20 students and will be held on the Jefferson Lab campus. Students must be 1) a U.S. citizen or 2) already in the U.S. with either a valid work or student visa or 3) have a B1 or WB visa. Attendance using a tourist (B2 or WT) visa is not permitted. Non-US citizens will have to register at JLab and present their passports and visas on the first day of class. There are also some citizenship restrictions, please contact the USPAS Office at email@example.com for more information or If you have questions about your eligibility.
Students must complete on-line safety training modules before the first day of class. A radiation worker training class may also be required depending on the final list of hands-on experiments.
Tom Powers, John Musson, Tomasz Plawski, Robert Rimmer and Haipeng Wang, Jefferson Lab
This class is full. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org to add your name to the waiting list.
Purpose and Audience
Modern accelerators rely on beam manipulation using electromagnetic fields at microwave frequencies. This laboratory course introduces the student to RF and microwave technology and laboratory methods for its characterization. The course consists primarily of laboratory exercises. Short lectures introduce essential features of topics covered in the laboratory exercises.
Undergraduate-level Electromagnetism and knowledge of basic accelerator science and technology at the level of the USPAS courses Fundamentals of Accelerator Physics and Technology with Simulations and Measurement Lab or graduate-level Accelerator Physics is required.
It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.
Provide the student with practical experience in measurements of RF and microwave accelerator hardware and signals using modern test equipment.
This course includes a series of lectures introducing fundamental concepts of microwave theory and the lab topics during morning sessions, and extensive lab sessions to demonstrate theoretical concepts.
These hand-on labs include:
(1) Spectrum Analyzer: Measurement of signals on a spectrum analyzer to understand resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, dynamic range, noise, etc.
(2) Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR): Measure characteristics of various connector families, transmission lines and complex loads.
(3) Beam Impedance: Use the wire method to measure the beam impedance of an accelerator element.
(4) Beam Signals: Utilize an arbitrary function generator to simulate beam signals from the accelerator; Amplitude Modulation (AM) for betatron signals, Frequency Modulation (FM) for synchrotron signals.
(5) Pickups and Kickers: Measure and understand performance of a stripline used as either a beam pickup or kicker.
(6) Matching: Design and build a simple single stub transmission line matching circuit.
(7) RF Cavities: Measure mode spectrums of a cavity, the cavity coupling, loaded and unloaded Q, and the electric field distribution and R/Q of a cavity by the bead pull method.
(8) Linac Structures: Measure mode spectrums of coupled cavities, loaded and unloaded Q; identify and understand the coupled modes and phase advance between cavities.
(9) Vector Signal Analyzer: Use of a vector signal analyzer for measuring beam signals and the properties of various microwave components.
(1) Microwave Measurements in the time and frequency domains, basics of spectrum analyzers, vector signal analyzers, and time domain reflectometers.
(2) Basics properties of microwave components such as amplifiers, mixers, directional couplers, filters, and circulators.
(3) Transmission lines, complex impedance, reflection coefficients.
(4) Microwave measurements with a Vector Network Analyzer; basics of vector network analyzers.
(5) Stripline pickups and kickers.
(6) AM/FM/PM Modulation and how it relates to beam spectrums, power spectral density, betatron and synchrotron signals.
(7) RF beam structure methods for measuring it.
(8) Impedance matching, basic of matching devices, and methods of impedance measurement.
(9) RF cavity and linac structure measurements; cavity and coupled cavity basics, bead pull, coupling, cavity bandwidth and quality factor Q, microphonics, and sources of errors and higher order modes.
(to be provided by the USPAS) "Microwave Engineering" by David Pozar (fourth edition), John Wiley and Sons Publishers (2011). The course will primarily follow our notes which will be available on-line.
Students will be evaluated based on performance in the laboratories. Instructors will be actively involved with each of the students during the course of each day and each experiment. The students will be evaluated by one on one discussions about the experiments (30% grade). Students are expected to submit written lab reports and solutions to the homework assignments (70% grade).
USPAS Computer Requirements
There will be no Computer Lab and all participants are required to bring their own portable computer to access online course notes and computer resources. This can be a laptop or a tablet with a sufficiently large screen and keyboard. Windows, Mac, and Linux-based systems that are wifi capable and have a standard web browser and mouse are all acceptable. You should have privileges for software installs. If you are unable to bring a computer, please contact email@example.com ASAP to request a laptop loan. Very limited IT support and spare loaner laptops will be available during the session.
Northern Illinois University course number: PHYS 790D Special Topics in Physics - Beam Physics
Indiana University course number: Physics 571, "Special Topics in Physics of Beams"
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790, "Accelerator Physics"