U.S. Particle Accelerator School
U.S. Particle Accelerator School
Education in Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology

High Power Targets for Accelerators

Sponsors:

UC Davis Continuing and Professional Education

Course Name:

High Power Targets for Accelerators

Instructors:

Patrick Hurh, Kavin Ammigan, Kevin Lynch and Matthew Quinn, Fermilab; David McClintock and Drew Winder, Oak Ridge National Lab


Purpose and Audience
This course is an introduction to the design, engineering and operation of targets for high power accelerator applications for the production of secondary particles. High power target system design must broadly consider heat removal, structural integrity, pulsed beam effects, material behavior under radiation, robust fabrication, and facility operation and safety considerations. The course is directed to graduate students or young professionals in engineering or physics with career interest in accelerator targets for secondary particle production.

Prerequisites
Courses in heat transfer, mechanics of materials, material science at undergraduate or entrance graduate level. Knowledge of finite element / finite difference methods, fatigue evaluation and physics of particle beam-matter interaction is recommended.

It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that they meet the course prerequisites or have equivalent experience.

Objectives
On completion of this course, the students are expected to understand the basic requirements for successful high-power target design and operation, and several approaches to evaluating design concepts to meeting those requirements. Students will be introduced to methods for evaluating particle production, energy deposition, target temperature, stress, fatigue, material radiation damage, and activation.

Instructional Method
The course will utilize presentations, demonstrations and exercises. Homework will be assigned daily, and the results will be graded and discussed in the following sessions.

Course Content
The course will begin with an overview of accelerator high power targets, the physics of targets, and concepts of deposited target power, power density, and pulse energy density. Target design concepts including fixed, segmented, rotating and flowing targets will be introduced. Methods for heat removal and estimating target operating temperature and stress will be covered. Target material selection, material radiation damage concepts and important material thermo-mechanical properties will be reviewed. A review of ionizing radiation will be conducted. Tools for simulating particle production, radiation dose and activation analysis will be introduced. The impact of facility safety with on target design choices will be discussed, as will operational considerations such as remote handling and waste disposal. Due to the sophisticated simulation tools typically used in target design and limited course time, hands-on exercises will be carried out for simplified concepts using generally available codes. Demonstrations of more detailed simulations of realistic designs will be presented.

Reading Requirements
Students will receive instructor-provided handouts.

Optional Reading Recommendations (in order of value)

- "Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer" by Theodore L. Bergman, Adrienne S. Lavine, et al, 7th edition, Wiley Publishers (2011).

- "Advanced Mechanics of Materials" by Arthur P. Boresi and Richard J. Schmidt, 6th edition, Wiley Publishers (2002).

- "Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science: Metals and Alloys" by Gary S. Was, 2nd edition, Springer (2016).

- "Stress Waves in Solids" (Dover Books on Physics) by H. Kolsky, 2nd edtion, Dover Publications (2012).


Credit Requirements
Students will be evaluated on homework assignments (70%) and a final project (30%).  

USPAS Computer Requirements
There will be no Computer Lab and all participants are required to bring their own portable computer to access online course notes and computer resources. Windows, Mac, and Linux-based systems that are wifi capable and have a standard web browser and mouse are all acceptable. You should have privileges for software installs. If you are unable to bring a computer, please contact uspas@fnal.gov ASAP to request a laptop loan. Very limited IT support and spare loaner laptops will be available during the session.


Indiana University course number: Physics 671, Advanced Topics in Accelerator Physics
Michigan State University course number: PHY 963, "U.S. Particle Accelerator School"
MIT course number: 8.790, "Accelerator Physics"